Jacquelyn Schneider is a doctoral student in Political Science at the George Washington University, where she focuses on intelligence and conflict, foreign-policy decision-making, cyber, and Asian security. She previously spent six years as an Air Force officer in South Korea and Japan. Julia Macdonald is a doctoral candidate in Political Science at the George Washington University where she focuses on signaling and threat credibility during crises. Her interests include gender and peacekeeping, military strategy, and U.S. decision-making. She previously worked for the New Zealand Ministry of Defense as a Policy Analyst and International Defense Relations Adviser.